But.... GPR119 is a topic that should definitely be on your radar if you take CBD oil, especially if you happen to have diabetes or struggle with being overweight or other metabolic issues. Literally, it may turn out to be one of the most important discoveries in medical science in many decades. Further, CBD oil may turn out to be the natural alternative to several pharmaceuticals that are now in the research or clinical test stage of development. In fact, those of us who believe in the entourage effect might argue that full spectrum CBD oil could turn out to be superior to the pharmaceuticals being developed!
Let's go through some scientific basics regarding GPR119.
GPR119 is a receptor that is found in the membrane of certain types of cells. It receives signals from specific molecules that then prompt it to initiate certain physiological actions in the body. You can think of these specific molecules as keys that can unlock the potential of the GPR119 receptor.
GPR119 is one of the leading candidates, among the non-CB1 and non-CB2 cell membrane receptors that are thought to be cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system. While GPR119 receptors have not yet been named an "official" cannabinoid receptor, it is likely this will happen within a decade, perhaps within a few years. Just know for now that GPR119 functions like a cannabinoid receptor so if you take CBD oil, this is a receptor you should be aware of and learn more about as additional studies come out. We will try to keep you posted as we hear more.
There are several molecules that are produced naturally in the body that can specifically target the GPR119 receptor. However, after a lot of research, follow up research, and debate, the primary two seem to be: oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and oleoyl lysophosphatidylcholine (also called oleoyl-LPC or LPC 18:1). Depending on which scientist you talk to, OEA and oleoyl-LPC are considered either to be cannabinoids or cannabinoid like molecules, i.e. they definitely function like cannabinoids. Oleoylethanolamide is a naturally produced analog of anandamide, the primary endogenous (internally produced) cannabinoid that interacts with the CB1 receptor in the endocannabinoid system. It's also considered the functional equivalent to THC but it doesn't make a person high.... wouldn't that be something... if the human body actually produced cannabinoids that made us high!
GPR119 receptors have a much more narrow distribution in the body than CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. They are almost all located in the cell membranes of two types of very specialized cells:
1. Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans portion of the pancreas.2. Enteroendocrine L cells found in the bottom portion of the small intestine, on the large intestine, and in part of the pancreas.
These are the very cells that are most important to those who suffer from diabetes, obesity, and other disorders of metabolism! These are the very cells that control the timing and release of very powerful hormones like insulin, peptide-1 (an incretin and similar to glucagon), pancreatic peptide YY3-36 (another incretin and similar to glucagon), and glucagon. These are the very cells in the body that control how fast your food in metabolized and how fast glucose is released into your bloodstream. These are the very cells that control how well and how fast glucose (from the breakdown of your food) is taken up by your cells or left stranded in your blood to cause high blood sugar (the primary symptom of diabetes!).
Several tedious experiments have shown that the GPR119 receptor is capable of controlling all of these processes and even protecting the beta cells and enteroendocrine L cells! Dying and or dysfunctional beta cells and enteroendocrine L cells are another tell-tale sign of diabetes that doctors don't usually test for and one of the underlying causes of diabetes!
We do not know for sure yet if CBD and or other cannabinoids found in cannabis (remember, there are at least sixty-six of them!) are capable of directly stimulating the GPR119 receptor. However, we do know already that CBD can cause a rise in OEA, the naturally produced molecule in the body that seems to be the strongest signal to the GPR119 receptor to work its magic. Unfortunately, research on natural plant cannabinoids is not profitable to Big Pharma because they cannot not patent naturally occurring molecules found in cannabis. Instead, they work on creating synthetic molecules they can patent. However, Israel just announced a big source of funding to look at natural cannabinoids as a treatment for diabetes so things could get really interesting really fast. These Israeli researchers seem to want to target China their natural cannabinoid treatments for diabetes as there is such a high percentage of Chinese who are now developing diabetes almost as fast as Americans as they have started eating more sugar, genetically modified foods, and more highly processed foods... very sad!
Hopefully we've sparked your interest in learning more about the ongoing research on GPR119 receptors and how cannabinoids interact with this receptor. This may turn out to be the key to why CBD oil has been so widely reported (mostly personal testimonials) to help diabetics control their blood sugar and even reverse their diabetes. There are even a few scientific studies that we'll review in other articles that specifically show that CBD oil can somehow reduce blood sugar!
One thing you need to be aware of if you should happen to want to research GPR119 receptors on your own:
GPR119 isn't always called "GPR119" in the scientific literature so keyword searches of PubMed and other scientific databases for "GPR119" will not even come close to providing a a complete list of all available research. Science is often encumbered with all sorts of technical terms to refer to basically the same thing! The GPR119 receptor, which may turn out to be THE discovery of a century for diabetes and obesity, has also been called SNORF25, RUP3, iGPCR1, GPCR2, PFI-007, PS1, AXOR20, OSGPR116, and GDIR in professional science journals! This is one of the reasons we are trying to provide a simplified easy to understand report on what's going on with GPR119. Wading through these highly technical journals, and keeping up with all the various terminology used, which they often don't explain, isn't for the faint of heart!